|21||Giallo Antico Corniches from Bulla Regia|
|22||Simitthus in the Roman Province|
This inscription dates the new bridge into the Emperor's 16th tribunicial power ( Dec. 111 to Dec. 112 C.E.). He is already acclaimed "optimus Augustus" (by the African military?) although the Senate only awarded him this title as late as 2nd half of August. 114 C.E.
The completely new bridge (a fundamentis) was the work of "his soldiers" (militumsuorum) and at his own expense (pecuniasua). The 'Area' page shows a view of the bridge's ruins.
century B.C.E. The Chimtou copy is the only one known to have a preserved arm. Judging from its pose it once held a (copper?) strigilis, a crescent- shaped scratching instrument to clean the body from oily dust when one sorted from the gymnasium. In the right hand, consequently, he must have had his globular gymnastic oil bottle. The subject, known as the Dresden type, is a Roman time copy of Aegaean insular marble and might have served as image of a youthful god in the 2nd and 3rd cent.C.E.
|27||View of Simitthus. A view of 3rd century C.E.Simitthus, painted by J.-C-Golvin.|
|28||Door of a Countryside Sanctuary|
An emperor (Commodus? Alexander Severus?) as the God Hercules.
A bit over 90 cms, half life-size, must have measured the terra cotta-group of an emperor with sword and lionęs skin,accompanied by the Cerynitian hinde, found in his excavations by Friedrich Rakob. In the museum it was set into a small apse, vaulted by a tube vault (see drawing) by architect S.Storz as an experimental part of his research on this ancient building technique. He found the earliest example of such vaulting in Africa in the central prison hall of the quarry slave labor camp at Simitthus (3rd quarter of 2nd cent.AD), before it became so typical for 3rd to 5th cent.AD North Africa in the vaults of the carcer in the slave labor camp of the Simitthus marble quarries. He is of the opinion that this technique was originally applied in vaulting pottery kilns. He kindly provided the following comment:
The earliest known example of a vault using terra cotta tubes was found at Morgantina in Sicily in a round room (laconicum) of a small bath building from the end of 3rd or beginning of 2nd cent.B.C. The first Roman construction tubes come perhaps from a house of 1st.cent.AD in Pompeii, but the evidence of their vaulting function is still in doubt. In the 2nd.cent. AD the use of tubes for vaults became an established building technique. Soon spreading from Roman Africa as a center towards the West it is even exported throughout much of the western Roman Empire such as to Italy, Late Roman Spain, France, England, Hungary, Croatia, with some examples even in Palestine and Syria. The Roman non-military province of Africa Proconsularis persists as the focus while in England and Syria their rare appearance is linked to military constructions. Thus, the Late Roman army may perhaps be responsible for its exportation to the armed periphery. Tube vaulting originally was introduced into the Roman architecture to serve as mouldings for vaulting in opus caementitium at a period facing an increasing lack of wood. Soon Roman architects found out that tube vaulting allowed to devel new forms of rich composite vaulting by domes which escaped archaeologists and architectural students until this recent research.
|31||The Sacred Hill of Chimtou|
|32||Graves of Roman Chimtou|
|33||Benefactors of Roman Chimtou|